First aid

















A wound is an injury accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the skin, bleeding. In this case, muscles, nerves and internal organs of a person can be damaged, infection can occur (microbes get inside). If wounds are small, they can be healed on their own, but there are also serious injuries that are life-threatening and require medical attention.

Bleeding is a damage to blood vessels, leading to the outflow of blood from them. There are being distinguished external and internal bleeding.

Types of external bleeding depending on the type of damaged vessel:

• arterial bleeding – the blood has a scarlet or bright red color, pours out in a pulsating stream;

• venous bleeding – blood has a dark cherry color, pours out slowly, in a continuous stream;

• capillary bleeding – blood oozes over the entire surface of the wound, abrasions.

Despite the fact that human bones are strong and able to withstand heavy loads, under certain conditions (during falls, bumps, etc.) they can break. A broken bone can damage nearby blood vessels, nerves, muscles, and other soft tissues. If the fracture causes severe bleeding, including internal bleeding, pain shock, etc., it can endanger a person’s life.

Types of fractures:

• closed (there is no wound) or open (if there is a wound in the area of the fracture);

• complete (the bone is broken) or incomplete (a crack in the bone, a small fracture);

• single or multiple.

At the scene of an accident, it is often difficult to determine the presence of a fracture or other damage to the bone.

The main signs by which you can do it:

• severe pain, especially when loading the limb;

• violation of the functions of the injured limb, its shortening and deformation, curvature, unnatural fold outside the joint;

• unusual limb mobility in places where it does not exist;

• bone fragments protruding from the wound.

First aid: wounds

First aid to the victim when receiving a wound depends on its type and localization locations. It basically includes the following steps: stop bleeding, treat the wound with a disinfectant, bandaging.

First aid: bleeding

If bleeding occurs, the main task during the provision of the first aid is its temporary (preliminary) stop, which produced on site.

First aid: injuries and fractures

Help with a broken bone is to immobilize the limb with using a tire or improvised material, it can be any elongated durable object (stick, rail, board, etc.). With an open fracture in first of all, the wound is treated and only then immobilization is carried out.



















First of all, help is given to those who are suffocating, who have profuse external bleeding, penetrating wounds of the chest or abdomen, who are unconscious or in a serious condition. Make sure that neither you nor the victim is in danger. Use medical gloves to protect from the body fluids of the victim. Remove (bring) the victim to a safe area. Determine the presence of a pulse, spontaneous breathing, pupillary reaction to light. Ensure patency of the upper airway.

Created based on materials from the official Internet portal EMERCOM of the Russian Federation